Unit 1




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Text B: “MY BIOGRAPHY”


after Mark Twain

I was born on the 30-th of November 1835 in the village of Florida, Missouri. My father was John Marshal Clemens.

According to tradition some of my great-great parents were pirates and slave traders — a respectable trade in the 16-th century. In my time I wished to be a pirate myself.

Florida contained a hundred people and when I was born I increased the population by one per cent. It had two streets and a lot of lanes. Both the streets and the lanes were paved (мостить) with the same material — black mud in wet times, deep dust in dry. Most of the houses were of wood — there were none of brick and none of stone. Everywhere around were fields and woods.

My uncle was a farmer. I have never met a better man than he was. He was a middle-aged man whose head was clear and whose heart was honest and simple. I stayed at his house for three months every year till I was thirteen years old. Nowhere else was I happier than at his house. He had eight children and owned about fourteen Negro slaves whom he had bought from other farmers. My uncle and everyone on the farm treated the slaves kindly. All the Negroes on the farm were friends of ours and with those of our own age we were playmates. Since my childhood I have learned to like the black race and admire some of its fine qualities. In my school days nobody told me that it was wrong to sell and buy people. It is only much later that I realized all the horror of slavery.

The country school was three miles from my uncle's farm. It stood in a forest and could take in about twenty five boys and girls. We attended school once or twice a week. I was a sickly (хилый) child and lived mainly on medicine the first seven years of my life.

When I was twelve years old my father died. After my father's death our family was left penniless. I was taken from school at once and placed in the office of a local newspaper as printer's apprentice (подмастерье) where I could receive board and clothes but no money.

For ten years I worked in printshops of various cities. I started my journalistic life as a reporter on a newspaper in San-Francisco. It was then that I began to sign my publications by my penname Mark Twain.

General understanding:

1. In what state was Samuel Clemens born?

2. What were the great-great parents of Mark Twain?

3. What did Mark Twain want to be?

4. What were the streets and lanes of Florida paved with?

5. How does the author describe his uncle?

6. How many slaves did Mark Twain's uncle own?

7. What was the author's attitude toward slavery?

8. Was Mark Twain a healthy boy?

9. When did the author start his career of a writer?
GRAMMAR

Неопределенный и определенный артикли. Неопределенный артикль a (an) происходит от числительного one (один), определенный — от указательного местоимения that (тот).

^ Артикль употребляется:

• перед каждым нарицательным существительным.

Если перед существительным артикль не употребляется, то нужно уметь объяснить, почему.

^ Артикль не употребляется если перед существительным стоит:

• указательное или притяжательное местоимение,

• другое существительное в притяжательном падеже,

• количественное числительное,

• отрицание no.

Например: This is my book. It's friend's book. I have one book.

Упоминая предмет впервые, мы употребляем перед ним неопределенный артикль а (ап). Упоминая этот же предмет вторично, мы ставим перед ним определенный артикль the. Например: This is a book. The book is interesting.

Неопределенный артикль a (an)

употребляется перед единичным, отдельным предметом, который мы не выделяем из класса ему подобных. Неопределенный артикль an обычно стоит перед существительным, которое начинается с гласного звука: an apple, an egg.

Например: I bought a book yesterday. Я купил вчера книгу (одну из многих ей подобных). I have an apple. У меня есть яблоко (одно, какое-то).

Неопределенный артикль a (an) может употребляться только с исчисляемыми существительными, стоящими в единственном числе. Перед неисчисляемыми существительными или существительными во множественном числе неопределенный артикль опускается.

^ Неопределенный артикль не употребляется:

а) с неисчисляемыми и «абстрактными» существительными:

I like coffee and tea. Friendship is very important in our life.

б) с существительными во множественном числе:

They are students now.

в) с именами собственными:

I told Jane about that.

г) с существительными, перед которыми стоят притяжательные или указательные местоимения:

This car is better than that. My bike is old.

д) с существительными, за которыми следует количественное числительное, обозначающее номер:

I have read page eight of the magazine.

Неопределенный артикль а необходим в конструкциях:

I have a... This is a... I am a... What a fine day! I see a... There is a... He is a...

^ Определенный артикль the выделяет предмет или предметы из класса им подобных:

The book I bought yesterday was interesting Книга, которую я купил вчера, была интересной (это — конкретная книга, которую говорящий выделяет из класса ей подобных).

Определенный артикль the употребляется как с исчисляемыми, так и с неисчисляемыми существительными, как с единственным, так и с множественным числом.

Например: This is a book. The book is interesting (исчисляемое в единственном числе).

This is meat. The meat is fresh, (неисчисляемое)

These are books. The books are good. (множественное число).

Определенный артикль употребляется:

а) когда известно (из контекста, из окружающей обстановки) о каком предмете (предметах, явлениях) идет речь: Open the door, please. I am going to the Academy.

б) когда речь идет о единственном в своем роде предмете или явлении: The moon is shining brightly.

в) когда существительное имеет ограничивающее определение, чаще всего с предлогом of.

I don't know the name of this pupil.

г) в словосочетаниях типа in the north, to the west, at the cinema, the same, in the country, the rest of the ...

д) если перед существительным стоит прилагательное в превосходной степени

This is the most interesting book.

e) перед порядковыми числительными

He lives on the fifth floor.

Географические названия и артикль

С географическими названиями и с именами собственными, артикль, как правило, не употребляется, кроме следующих случаев:

а) с названиями морей, рек, океанов, горных хребтов, групп островов используется определенный артикль: the Pacific Ocean, the Black Sea, the Thames, the British Isles.

б) определенный артикль используется с несколькими названиями стран, областей и городов, (хотя обычно с этими типами названий артикль не используется):

the Ukraine, the Crimea, the Caucasus, the Netherlands, the Hague, the Riviera, the Congo, the West Indies

в) определенный артикль используется с названиями стран типа:

the Russian Federation, the United States of America, the United Kingdom.

г) перед собирательным именем семьи The PetrovsПетровы
Exercise 1.3. Translate into Russian. Explain the use (использование) of definite (определенных) and indefinite (неопределенных) articles:

1. Last week I met my friend. He was with a young girl. The girl was a student of our Academy. 2. This is a pencil. The pencil is red. 3. She is a teacher. She is our teacher of English. 4. It is a lake. The lake is deep. It's one of the deepest lakes in the world. 5. There are many flowers in your garden. The flowers are beautiful. 6. Did you write a plan? Give me your plan, please. Is this plan effective? 7. The Black Sea is in the South of Russia. 8. This is Mike. He works as an engineer. Mike is a highly qualified engineer. 9. There are some schools in our street. The schools are new. 10. Gagarin was the first cosmonaut of the world. 11. In summer the sky is blue and the sun shines brightly. 12. The Petrovs are very friendly. 13. This is Ann's book. I don't like such books. 14. Winter begins in December.
Exercise 1.4. Insert (вставьте) the article where necessary:

1. This ... pencil is broken. Give me that ... pencil, please. 2. I can see three ... boys. ... boys are playing. 3.1 have... bicycle.... bicycle is black. My ... friend has no ... bicycle. 4. Our ... room is large. 5. We wrote ... dictation yesterday.... dictation was long. 6. She has two ...daughters and one...son. Her...son is ...pupil. 7. My ...brother's... friend has no... dog. 8. This is ... tree.... tree is green. 9. She has ...ball. ...ball is ...big. 10. I got ... letter from my ... friend yesterday. ... letter was interesting.
Exercise 1.5. Use the articles a, an, the where it is necessary:

1. Yesterday I saw... new film, but... film wasn't very interesting. 2. London is situated on ... Thames. 3. Yuri Gagarin was ... first man to fly over ... Earth in spaceship. 4. My daughter will go school... next year. 5.1 decided to visit... Ivanovs, but they were not at... home 6. In ... summer we live in ... country. 7. Lomonosov,... great Russian scientist, was born in ... small village on ... shore of... White Sea. 8.... United States of America is one of ... most powerful countries of the world. 9. Is your dress made of ... silk or ... cotton? 10...Peter's brother is... student and we are.. .pupils .11. What would you like:... apple or... orange? 12. What... strange man he is!
Exercise 1.5. Use the articles a, an, the where it is necessary:

I... Volga is ... longest river in ... Europe. 2. ...History and ... Literature were ... my favourite subjects at ... school. 3.What is ... nearest way to ... Drama Theatre?4. ...butter and... cheese are made of... milk. 5. Usually I get up at... 7 o'clock in ... morning. 6...Rostov is situated on ... Don. 7. Will you have ... cup of ... tea? 8.What... good friend you are! 9. We shall go to ...cinema ... next week together with ... Petrovs. 10. This is ... book, ... book is very interesting. 11. Do you see ... sun in ... sky today? 12.He is ... engineer by ... profession.
Exercise 1.6. Insert (вставьте) the article where necessary:

Three men came to ... New York for ... holiday. They came to... very large hotel and took... room there. Their room was on... forty-fifth floor. In... evening... friends went to ... theatre and came back to ... hotel very late.

«I am very sorry,» said ... clerk of ... hotel, «but... lifts do not work tonight. If you don't want to walk up to your room, we shall make... beds for you in... hall.» «No, no,» said one of ... friends, «no, thank you. We don't want to sleep in ... hall. We shall walk up to our room.»

Then he turned to his friends and said: «It is not easy to walk up to ... forty-fifth floor, but we shall make it easier. On ... way to ... room I shall tell you some jokes; then you, Andy, will sing us some songs; then you, Peter, will tell us some interesting stories.» So they began walking up to their room. Tom told them many jokes; Andy sang some songs.

At last they came to ... thirty sixth floor. They were tired and decided to have... rest. «Well,» said Tom, «now it is your turn, Peter. After all... jokes, I would like to hear ... sad story. Tell us ... long and interesting story with ...sad end.» «... story which I am going to tell you,» said Peter, «is sad enough. We left... key to our room in ...hall.»
Образование множественного числа имен существительных.

Множественное число существительных (кроме тех, у которых основа оканчивается на -ch, -s, -ss, -sh, -х) образуется путем прибавления к основе окончания -s: a boy — boys, a trick — tricks, a pen —pens, a girl — girls.

Множественное число существительных, основа которых оканчивается на -ch, -s, -ss, -sh, -x, а также существительных, имеющих, как правило, окончание -о, образуется путем прибавления к основе окончания -es; a bench — benches, a bus- buses, a glass — glasses, a box — boxes, a potato — potatoes.

Существительные, оканчивающиеся на (после согласной) во множественном числе имеют окончание -ies: an army — armies, a fly — flies, a lady — ladies. Конечное f(-fe), как правило, меняется на -ves:

a calf — calves, a knife — knives, a shelf — shelves,

a wife — wives (но: roof — roofs).

Ряд существительных образует множественное число не по общим правилам:

а) изменяется корневая гласная:

a man - men, a woman - women, a foot - feet, a tooth - teeth, a goose - geese, a mouse - mice

б) добавляется окончание -en:

an ox — oxen. a child — children.

в) заимствуются формы единственного и множественного числа из латинского и греческого языков:

a formula - formulae (formulas), a crisis - crises, a criterion - criteria, an index - indices, a bacterium — bacteria, an axis — axes

В английском языке есть существительные, которые имеют одну (общую) форму для единственного и множественного числа: a deer (олень) - deer (олени), a sheep (овца) - sheep (овцы), a fish рыба) - fish (рыбы), a swine (свинья) – swine (свиньи).

Некоторые существительные имеют только единственное число: advice, information, news. knowledge, furniture, luggage.

Некоторые - только множественное число, clothes, riches, damages, goods, looks, manners, thanks.

Запомните:

this is — these are

that is -— those are

there is — there are

it is — they are
Exercise 1.7. Decide which of the following nouns are countable (исчисляемые) or uncountable (неисчисляемые):

Time, water, machine, music, snow, word, coffee, money, idea, family, darkness, knowledge, sea hour. tree, silver, meat, happiness, information, speed, book, news, house, friend, milk, student, pen, paper, clothes picture, air, goods.
Exercise 1.8. Read and translate the sentences. Decide which of the underlined nouns (существительных) are countable or uncountable and explain why:

1. We have read all the official papers. There were some sheets of paper on the table. 2.Two coffees, please. I like strong coffee. 3. Give me two glasses. Are they made of glass or plastics? 4. Many thousands of bricks are produced at the factory. Our school is built of brick.
Exercise 1.9. Write down the following nouns in plural.

Box, sheep, place, library, photo, mouse, lady, glass, bush, dress, country, bus, party, wife, day, knife, knowledge, month, pen, hero, goose, company, life, deer, tomato, city, man, play, news, child, fruit, shelf, leaf, foot, fish, woman, money, information.
Exercise 1.10. Write down the following nouns in plural:

A star, a mountain, a tree, a waiter, the queen, a man, a woman, an eye, a shelf, a box, a city, a boy, a goose, a watch, a mouse, a dress, a toy, a sheep, a tooth, a child, an ox, a deer, a life, a tomato.
Exercise 1.11. Write down the following nouns in plural:

this man, that match, this tea-cup, this egg, that wall, that picture, this foot, that mountain, this lady, that window, this knife
Exercise 1.12. Put the following sentences in plural and write them down. Pay attention to the changes of the verb (глагол):

1. A new house is in our street. 2. This story is very interesting. 3. There was a woman, a man, a boy and a girl in the room. 4. In the farm-yard we could see an ox, a sheep, a cow and a goose. 5. Put this knife on that table. 6. Why don't you eat this potato? 7. This strawberry is still green. 8. A yellow leaf has fallen to the ground. 9. Can you see a bird in that tree? 10. Does your tooth still ache? 11. I held up my foot to the fire to warm it. 12. His child studies very well. 13. Is this worker an Englishman or a German? — He is a Frenchman. 14. What is that child's name? 15. The cat has caught a mouse. 16. I have hurt my foot. 17. The wolf has been shot. 18. He keeps his toy in a box. 19. This man works at our office.
Exercise 1.13. Put the following sentences in plural and write them down. Pay attention to the changes of the verb:

1. This is my stocking. 2. He has a new suit. 3. This metal is very hard. 4. That ship is a Russian one. 5. I heard her voice. 6. His dog does not like bread. 7. The plate was on the table. 8. This town is very large. 9. I was talking to her at the tram stop yesterday. 10. Is that girl your sister? 11. I shall give you my book. 12. This story will be a good one. 13. Is this a good match? 14. The boy put his book on the desk. 15. She took off her hat. 16. That house is new. 17. The pupil put his book into the bag. 18. Is this student coming with us, too? 19. The woman didn't say anything. 20. Does she speak English?
Притяжательный падеж существительных

Examples: The child's toys — The children's toys
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