How important do you think for young people to be aware of the past?




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UNIT 1 ART OR ENTERTAINMENT?
LEAD-IN

1 Discuss the following questions.

  • How important do you think for young people to be aware of the past?

  • Which areas of the past are you most interested in? Why?

  • In what way is art present in our everyday lives and what effect does it have?

  • What is the historic role of the museums?

  • What is the way we use our great national institutions?


2 Complete the text using the words and phrases given.
A charge on the National cuLture


pledges

charges

to secure

medieval

houses

access

contemporary

connoisseur

curators

trustees

to establish

militate

endorse

acquisition




THE British Museum may have to introduce admission (1) ……………………. for its six million visitors a year because of reductions in its government grant. The 237-year-old museum - which (2) ……………………… the Elgin marbles, a magnificent collection of Greco-Roman antiquities, Egyptian sculpture and (3)…………………………. art - is one of the few great British institutions to have so far escaped financial purges.

But a report, commissioned by ^ Graham Green, chairman of the museum's (4)………………….., suggests that entry charges should be introduced to make up for the shortfall created by a million pound cut in grant. This would fly in the face of (5)……………….. made by Dr Robert Anderson, the museum's director that he would never ask visitors to pay. Dr Robert Anderson does not (6)…………………….. the introduction of admission charges. He compares museums to great ref­erence libraries, "surpassing by far subordinate roles such as that of tourist attraction, her­itage experience or entertain­ment centre. Charging changes the relationship between the museum and its public, encour­aging these latter roles over the former».

Most of those in the museum world share the dis­taste. Charges, they say, change the ethos: they make the experience more commer­cial, (7)……………………. against the brief visit, discourage repeat visits. As the National Art Collec­tions Fund sees it, "a full day in a museum to 'get your money's worth' is enough to kill off any desire to return — especially for children".

^ Sir Denis Mahon, leading British art (8)………………………….. earlier this year withdrew a bequest from the Walker Gallery, Liverpool, when it announced charges: "As a collec­tor with something to offer, I am much in favour of a genuine partnership between the private sector and the state, but find it deeply distasteful that the pub­lic should be held to ransom for (9)……………………….. to its own property."

The directors of the leading British Museums share the claim that “free admission is the cornerstone of democratic access to our cultural inheritance”. They are convinced that there are useful tools both to keep museums free from admission charges and to provide (10)……………………….. with sufficient means to run their art institution.

Membership subscriptions and donations made through the British Museum Friends support the (11)…………………………… of important objects to complement the Museum’s complex and unique collection, as well as growing holdings of (12)…………………… objects held for the benefit of future generations. Members also contribute to the Museum’s active research programme, designed to deepen knowledge and promote understanding of the collection. Since its earliest days the Museum has relied on the generosity of donors and supporters – a public lottery was held (13) …………………… the £20,000 needed to purchase Hans Sloane’s initial collection for the nation.

^ Charles M. Weisenberg, former public relation director of the Los Angeles Public Library claims that museum admission fees are clearly most hurtful to those least able to afford them. “Think of how the public and the politicians would explode if just the downtown public library were (14)…………………….. an admission fee. It is about time we made visiting an art museum as easy as visiting a library.”


^ 3 Vocabulary Work

For the words 1-10 find the appropriate definitions A-J.



A the representation of images or expression of ideas, especially

through painting, drawing, or shaping things out of wood, stone

B art, music, theatre, film, literature etc, all considered together

C art, music, theatre, film, literature etc especially that which is

produced by a particular society or a particular group in society

^ D equipment or technology uses the newest and

most advanced ideas and features

E an object that was made a long time ago and is historically

important, for example a tool or weapon

I someone whose job is to look after the objects in a museum

F an adjective which describes someone who knows a lot about

the arts and is very interested in them

G someone who knows a lot about a particular thing and enjoys it

a lot

H the art, buildings, traditions and beliefs that a society considers

important to its history and culture

J someone who is responsible looking after money or property that

belongs to someone else, e.g a museum


1 state-of-the-art

2 the arts

3 connoisseur

4 culture

5 art

6 cultured

7 artifact

8 heritage

9 trustee

10 curator



4 Sum up the problem British museums face and the attitude of the involved people to the problem (up to 150 words).

LISTENING

5 Listen to a historian talking about some important dates in the twentieth century. Read the questions and choose the best answer.

Мультимедийный каталог: 2222 Аудиокурс к учебнику Upstream → 3385 Аудиокурс Upstream Proficiency → Unit 8, counter 00:17-05:50)
1. World War I was?

  1. continuous

  2. horrible

  3. nuclear

  4. inevitable

^ 2. The distinguishing feature of World War I was that

  1. all great Western powers participated in it.

  2. it lasted five years.

  3. the most advanced technology was used.

  4. the death toll was 10 million.

3. World War I

  1. filled people with disgust at the thought of any further war.

  2. inevitably led to World War II.

  3. is known as Great Patriotic War.

4. In 1928 The British women gained

  1. equal rights and opportunities as men.

  2. the right to participate in the general elections.

  3. the possibility to participate in a militant movement.

5. The women’ suffrage was obtained

  1. in 1928.

  2. the latter part of the 19th century.

  3. at the beginning of the 20th century.

6. Suffragettes used a lot of high profile methods except such as

  1. interrupting public orators with the avalanche of questions.

  2. arranging public gathering.

  3. placing barricade out of railings.

  4. refusing food.

^ 7. In 1929 the United States faced

  1. the Great Depression.

  2. stock market crash.

  3. mild economic crisis in industry.

8. This important financial event

  1. had far-reaching social consequences.

  2. followed the crisis in commerce and finance.

  3. resulted in reduction of the number of jobless people.

^ 9. The economic disaster is characterized by the following features except

  1. its extraordinary duration.

  2. a large number of people who went broke.

  3. disturbances and social unrest.

  4. restrained poverty.

10. Dropping atomic bomb was a

  1. disputable action.

  2. irresponsible decision.

  3. tough measure.

^ 11. The atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

  1. proved the need for the use of such weapons.

  2. hastened the end of World War II.

  3. was the demonstration of unparalleled destructive power.

12. Yuri Gagarin was the first man to

  1. orbit the Earth successfully.

  2. make two circuits around Earth.

  3. paved the way for Moon exploration.

13. Dr Martin Luther King

  1. granted African Americans full constitutional freedom.

  2. called for aggressive resistance to discrimination.

  3. distinguished himself as a leader of the civil rights movement.

14. Civil Rights Act, signed in 1964

  1. paved way for the struggle for equal rights of the black people.

  2. partly responsible for Martin Luther King assassination.

  3. prohibited unfair treatment of African American in employment.


6 Use the words and phrases which you heard in the listening to complete the sentences below. (The sentences are not connected with text!)


  1. A ………………………….. of the bill, so far, is about £22,000.

  2. If the permission is …………………………., they’ll start building soon.

  3. Women didn’t …………… much …………….. in getting selected as parliamentary candidates.

  4. The transport strike had all sorts of …………………… in other industries.

  5. A new director introduced …………………. changes to the management structure.

  6. He has an ……………… knowledge of local history.

  7. Students who complete the course successfully will be ……………………. a diploma.


7 Speaking POINTS .


Strategy Points

  • Spend a minute thinking about the topic below and making brief notes.

  • During a minute decide how you will introduce and link your ideas, and then talk for a minute (!).

  • Remember to include some examples to support or illustrate what you say.

  • Use a variety of vocabulary and grammatical structures.

  • Make sure you keep to the topic.

  • Learn useful phrases and expressions. These give you time to think, and also act as signposts which help listeners follow your arguments.

Giving an example: for instance, if we take the example of X, X serves as a good example of this

^ Sequencing words: firstly, secondly, finally, lastly, last but not least

Introducing a new idea: the first thing (I'd like) to mention, to begin with, another point to consider is, which leads me on to another point, and, of course, we shouldn't forget

Bringing an idea to its conclusion: to sum up, in the final analysis, on balance, taking all the arguments into consideration, in conclusion




    • Speak on one of the following Speaking Points.




  1. Involvement in art helps people develop their personality.

  2. Schools have responsibility for making students aware of their historic and cultural heritage.

  3. Entry charges won't keep people out of our museums.

  4. Such factors as the theme of the exhibition, location, etc can encourage people to oftener visit museums.

  5. The cultural strategy of a government shapes a nation’s mind.

  6. Museums are supposed to vary their practices in getting people interested in visiting them.



Part 1
8 Make use of the following Internet sites and find the necessary information about the following artifacts: The Elgin Marbles, The Benin Bronzes, The Rosetta Stone; the museum: The Pergamon Museum, the historic event: The Boxer Rebellion. Deliver the information in class.
http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/highlight_objects/aes/t/the_rosetta_stone.aspx

http://www.fotopedia.com/wiki/Pergamon_Altar

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benin_bronzes

http://www.fotopedia.com/wiki/Elgin_Marbles
9 Read the following article.
Snatched from northern climes



Greek demands to get back the Elgin marbles risk stopping a better idea: museums lending their treasures

THERE is much to be said for moral clarity. Greece is insist­ing that the British Museum sur­render the marble sculptures that Lord Elgin took down from the Parthenon and carted away in the early 1800s. Anything less, it says, would "condone the snatching of the marbles and the monument's carving-up 207 years ago." The Greek demand for ownership will arouse widespread sympathy, even among those who accept the Brit­ish Museum's claim to the marbles. With the opening of an im­pressive new museum in Athens, the sculptures from the Parthenon now have good cause to be reunited, if only for artistic reasons.

But sometimes clarity is self-defeating. A previous Greek administration was willing to finesse the question of ownership and co-operate with the British Museum over a joint display of the marbles. By hardening its position, the Greek government risks driving museums everywhere into clinging to their possessions for fear of losing them. If the aim is for the greatest number of people to see the greatest number of treasures, a better way must be found.

As curators all over the world will see it, those who call for the permanent return of the Parthenon sculptures from Lon­don are arguing for international museums to be emptied.

Many other collections have a more dubious provenance than the marbles — think of the British Museum's Benin bronzes, seized in a punitive raid in Nigeria; of the Pergamon altar re­moved from Turkey and now in Berlin; of Chinese treasures carried off during the Boxer rebellion and again during the civ­il war; of hundreds of works in Russian museums that were snatched from their owners in the Bolshevik revolution.

You cannot go very far in righting those wrongs without entangling the world's museums in a Gordian knot of restitu­tion claims. That is why, in December 2002, 18 of the world's leading directors - from the Louvre to the Hermitage and from the Metropolitan Museum to the Getty Museum - argued for a quid pro quo. The Munich declaration, as it is called, asserts that today's ethical standards cannot be applied to yesterday's acquisitions; but in return it acknowledges that encyclopedic museums have a special duty to put world culture on display.

This has led to a new level of co-operation between muse­ums over training, curating, restoration and loans. Thousands of works are now lent each year between museums on every continent. Who thought that China's Palace Museum and the National Palace Museum in Taiwan would hold a joint show in Taipei, as they plan to in October, reuniting Qing-dynasty works that have been separated ever since they were borne away from Beijing by the retreating Nationalist forces in 1948? The British Museum was not party to the Munich decla­ration, but it seems to embrace its spirit. During the Olympic Games in China in 2008 it sent the Discobolus, the discus-thrower of Myron, to Shanghai where 5,000 people queued each day to see it. It will soon lend the Rosetta stone, the cor­nerstone of written language, to Egypt for the opening of the Giza museum. On the day the new Acropolis Museum was opened, the British Museum's director was in Riyadh, to ar­range loans for an exhibition on the haj in London in 2011.

The choice is between the free circulation of treasures and a stand-off in which each museum grimly clings to what it claims to own. Instead of grandstanding, the Greek culture minister should call the British Museum's bluff and ask for loan. The nervous British would then have to test the waters by, say, sending to Athens a single piece of the Parthenon frieze. If that piece were to be seized, then so be it. But if on the due date, the Greeks surprised everybody and returned the sculpture, then the lending programme would surely be expanded. By taking small steps, the Greeks may yet encourage the British to make the big leap. ■


The Economist June 27th 2009
10 Answer the following questions.

  1. What issue is under discussion?

  2. What countries are in the thick of things? What countries are also involved in the dispute?

  3. What is the crux of the matter?

  4. What is the historic background of the conflict?

  5. What are possible solutions to the problem?

  6. What gains and losses may those involved experience?


11 Read the text carefully to find a word or phrase that means:
1 to seize or gain ……………………………

2 country or land …………………………….

3 to pardon or overlook …………………………….

4 a place of origin ……………………………

5 to take away using force ………………………………

6 unable to achieve the intended result …………………………………

7 to involve ………………………………….

8 a deadlock ……………………………………

9 relating to punishment …………………………………

10 to make an exploratory or initial approach ………………………..

11 cut into pieces …………………………………….

12 something given in compensation ……………………………………..

13 to get smth by dealing with people in a skillful way ……………………….

^ 12 PANEL DISCUSSION

* Panel discussion is the format of a debate in which participants representing various shades of opinion on a topic argue the case, usually under the guidance of a chairperson.


  • Research Work. Look for the information on the following topic in various sources of information.



    • Art Restitution: a rightful claim?



The relevant issues may be useful to consider while discussing the topic:


    • the Baldin collection and the Russian government’s line on that issue

    • History of Looted Art, looting and looted countries



  • Arrange the information in the written form.

  • Choose a chairperson to lead the discussion.

  • Contribute to the discussion.





!!! Strategy Point for panel discussion

  • Voice opinions you are a party to.

  • Take turns to practise reporting your ideas on the issue.

  • When you report ideas in discussion, you must not read your source material. It is more usual to summarise or paraphrase the ideas in your own words.

  • Listen carefully to the other students’ reports on their reading and make notes on the key points.

  • Respond to the arguments of the participants with your own ideas.

  • You have to take care to make it very clear to your listeners when you are expressing your own opinions, and when you are reporting ideas you have read or heard about.

  • Use a repertoire of expressions for voicing strong agreement, disagreement, and all the shades of opinion in between.




Expressing an opinion:

If you ask me…

If you want my opinion, …

Strong agreement:

Absolutely.

I couldn’t agree more.

Conceding an argument:

Ok, you win.

You’ve convinced me.

Hedging:

I take your point, but …

Yes, but …

Qualified agreement:

That’s partly true.

I’d go along with that.

Strong disagreement:

I totally disagree.

On the contrary …




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